Other Information and Data
Canadian Reports and Resources
- HealthCareCan's policy brief Addressing and Eliminating Systemic Racism in the Healthcare System (December 2020) offers actions to address and eliminate systemic racism and social disparities.
- The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) has proposed a standard for race-based and Indigenous identity data collection in health care. The standard is an adaptation of the Government of Ontario's Anti-Racism Directorate (ARD) race data standards and is in line with The Upstream Lab's SPARK study (Screening for Poverty And Related social determinants and intervening to improve Knowledge of and links to resources) with the adjustment that a distinctions-based Indigenous identity question be added.
- The Canadian Public Health Association's (CPHA) 2018 position statement on eliminating systemic racism provides a series of recommendations and calls to action for organizations and agencies involved in the education, research and provision of health and social services in Canada.
- Statistics Canada's July 2020 article, "Perceptions of personal safety among population groups designated as visible minorities in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic" showed that since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic:
- "1 in 5 (21%) visible minority crowdsourcing participants perceived that harassment or attacks based on race, ethnicity or skin colour occurred sometimes or often in their neighbourhood, double the proportion among the rest of the population (10%)."
- "Visible minority participants were three times more likely (18%) than the rest of the population (6%) to perceive increases in the frequency of harassment or attacks based on race, ethnicity or skin colour."
- Colour Coded Health Care: The impact of race and racism on Canadians' Health (2012), published by the Wellesley Institute, reviews the literature on racial disparities in the health of Canadians and the bias, discrimination and stereotyping in health care delivery.
Anti-Black Racism Resources
- In 2019, Statistics Canada published a report entitled Diversity of the Black population in Canada: An overview, based mostly on the 2016 census data. The report shows that:
- In 20 years, the Black population in Canada has doubled in size, going from 573,860 persons in 1996 to 1,198,540 persons in 2016.
- The Black population is expected to continue to increase and could represent between 5.0% and 5.6% of Canada's population by 2036.
- In 2016, the Black population was younger than the total population in Canada. The median age for the Black population was 29.6 years, while it was 40.7 years for the total population.
- The Black Health Equity Working Group, comprised of Black health sector leaders and health equity experts has developed a data governance framework (2021) for health data collected from Black communities in Ontario.
- Barriers and Facilitators to Accessing Mental Healthcare in Canada for Black Youth: A Scoping Review (2020) reveals that Black children and youth face many barriers to accessing mental healthcare in Canada.
- Every Woman Matters: A Report on Accessing Primary Health Care for Black Women and Women of Colour in Ontario (April 2011), a collaborative research project by Women's Health in Women's Hands, presents findings regarding the barriers and facilitators that Black Women and Women of Colour face to access primary health care. The report also presents results of a pilot program that was developed to support homeless/underhoused women in this population. Finally, it offers recommendations to decrease disadvantage for Black Women and Women of Colour in need of health care.
Anti-Indigenous Racism Resources
Anti-Asian Racism Resources
- Government of Canada resource: Events in Asian Canadian history
- The Chinese Canadian National Council – For Social Justice (CCNC-SJ) educates, engages and advocates for equity and justice for all in Canada. The #FaceRace Campaign aims to build knowledge and awareness of anti-Asian racism in Canada before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also aims to empower victims of racism and promote community resilience.
- Dr. Josephine Wong, at Ryerson University, and her research partners created PROTECH: Pandemic Rapid-response Optimization To Enhance Community-Resilience and Health, which is a community-engaged action research project, built on the lessons from the HIV and SARS pandemics, that aims to reduce the negative psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Chinese Canadians and other affected groups while promoting community resilience. Project PROTECH includes:
- COVID-19 Info Hub (CIH): An online resource hub (offered in Chinese–simplified and traditional, and English) from community members and health care workers that provides accurate and timely information on COVID-19, and practical ways to cope with fear and anxiety. This hub also offers users live support via text or phone.
- Pandemic Acceptance and Commitment to Empowerment Response (PACER) Training: A mindfulness and social-justice based group training program designed to provide coping strategies for COVID-19-related demands and challenges and promote resilience among affected groups (individuals who tested positive; health-care providers experiencing stress or burnout, community leaders, etc.)
- Systematic Pandemic Active Response Collaborative (SPARC) Model: Aims to connect, mobilize, and align existing people, processes and resources to devise multi-sector responses to address the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The PROTECH team is working closely with community partners and collaborators to identify key issues among Chinese Canadians and other affected communities.
- Mamuji, A.A., Rozdilsky, J.L., Lee, C.T., Mwarumba, N., Tubula, M. and Chu, T. (2020). Expanding the narrative on anti-Chinese stigma during COVID-19: Lessons on complexity & capacity in Toronto and Nairobi. Disaster & Emergency Management, York University: Technical Report #005.
- This research examined the discrimination and stigmatization of the Chinese community at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Greater Toronto Area and Nairobi, Kenya.
- The researchers interviewed people of the Chinese diaspora to learn about their lived experiences and came to understand that, in the GTA, because of Sinophobia and misdirected blame for COVID-19 on the Chinese community, many of their efforts to help manage the COVID-19 pandemic went largely unnoticed.
- In June 2020, Angus Reid, in partnership with the University of Alberta, conducted a survey of more than 500 Canadians of Chinese ethnicity to understand their experiences with racism during COVID-19.
- Zhang, W., Chai, L., Fan. J., Wang, P, Wei, X and Yang, L. (2020). Covid-19, racial discrimination, and psychological distress. Annals of Epidemiology, 52, accessed online, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540245/
- The Toronto District School Board (TDSB) and the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO) published, Addressing Anti-Asian Racism: A Resource for Educators (December 2020).
- This guide, Social Stigma Associated with the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), was produced by UNICEF, the World Health Organization and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) in March 2020 to help prevent and address social stigma associated with COVID-19.
- The Healthcare Anchor Network, comprised of 39 health systems in 45 states and Washington, DC have committed to addressing racism and the public health disparities caused by racism. The statement and action steps are available here. The United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed 2015-2024 as the International Decade for People of African Descent highlighting the need to strengthen national, regional and international collaboration regarding the fulfillment of economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights by people of African descent, and their equal and full participation in all parts of society.
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